Title: General Circular, Bureau of Immigration, Topeka, Kansas, March 11, 1867

Date: March 11, 1867

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General Circular.

Kansas was organized a Territory May 30th, 1854. Admitted into the Union a State, January 29th, 1861. Has about 80,000 square miles. Is 207 mile wide from north to south, and about 400 miles long, east to west. Contains over fifty million acres of land, about one-half of which has been surveyed At least 20 million acres are yet open for pre-emption or settlement under the Homestead Act. Large tracts of the best lands, heretofore held as Indian Reservations, are being thrown open to settlement by removal of the Indians, they all having by treaty agreed to leave the State. The land is prairie, except along streams; surface rolling.

Climate, extremely healthy, No swamps or marshes. The pure, dry air of the Prairies proved beneficial to diseased lungs. Consumption never known, except brought here from other States. The summer heat is tempered by a breeze from the south-west. The nights are cool. Winters short and mild, with only a few sharp, cold days. Usually but a trifling amount of snow, lasting but a day or two. Ice in the streams, sufficient for summer use Breaks up never later then February. Spring opens about the first of March, usually -- not with rain and mud, but with a dry breeze from the south, rising sometimes to a gale. In 35 years there has been but one general drouth -- in 1860.

Crops. Wheat, corn, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, sweet and Irish potatoes, sorghom, pumpkins, turnips, melons, tobacco, flax, hemp, cotton and all kinds of garden vegetables do well. Wheat, in many cases, yields 40 bushels, in some, 50 bushels to the acre. Whole counties claim to have average [?] bushels. Spring wheat is raised successfully.

Fruits of all kinds, of this latitude, grow abundantly. Apples, pears and peaches succeed well. Berries, wild and cultivated, also wild plums plentiful. The soil and climate peculiarly adapted to the growth of GRAPES, large vineyards being cultivated. Blight and mildew comparatively unknown.

Water -- abundant and pure, of limestone mostly -- usually found by digging from 25 to 50 feet. Numerous streams everywhere furnish water for stock In many parts unfailing springs abound. The "Missouri" is the only river of the State reliable for steamboat navigation. It forms our eastern boundary for about 100 miles, and is navigable to Montana Territory, -- about 2,500 miles above Leavenworth. Steamboats have occasionally run up the Kansas River 120 miles, to Fort Riley.

Timber abounds along the streams, cheifly. There are the black walnut, the different oaks, soft and sugar maple, sycamore, white ash, cottonwood, pecan, locust, mulberry, backberry coffee-bean, cherry, elm and hickory.

Fencing. The Bois d'arc or osage orange is extensively and successfully cultivated. A good hedge fence can be raised in about four years. Rails usually had at from $2 to $5 per hundred. Stone, suitable for building and fencing, convenient to almost every quarter-section. Many of the best farms are fenced with stone wall, at a cost of $1,50 to $3,00 per rod. There are many varieties of the blue, gray and brown limestone, also the best of sandstone and marble.

Building Material. Kansas lumber from $25 to $40 per thousand feet at the mills. Shingles about $6. Pine lumber at the railroad $50 to [?] Pine shingles $8 to $11. Clay and sand for brick abound, and the best varieties of stone and marble.

Bituminous Coal of good quality abounds. In some localities it sells at 10 to 12 cents per bushel, delivered. It is found in veins 1 1-2 to 6 feet thick.

Other Minerals, such as iron ore, gypsum, lead, fire-clay, porphyry, paints, quartz, and beds of salt, salt marshes and salt springs have been discovered.

Coal Oil. In many parts of the State are strong indications of coal oil, -- such as oil springs and abundant sandstone saturated with petroleum. Also large deposits of asphaltum.

Railroads. Over 300 miles of railroad now completed and use in Kansas. The Union Pacific Ed D., running west from Leavenworth and Wyanotte, up the Kansas and Smoky Hill valleys, has over 200 miles finished. The Central Branch, U.P.R.R., through the northern tier of counties has 15 miles about ready for the cars. Work has begun on the Leavenworth, Lawrence and Galveston R.R. from Lawrence south-also on the Missouri River, Fort Scott & Galveston R.R., from Wyandotte south. The Union Pacific R.R., Southern Branch, from Junction City, near Fort Riley, vi: the Neosho Valley to Fort Smith, is about ready to commence work-having made a survey. The Lawrence & Emporia R.R. and the St. Joseph Topeka & S.W.R.R., have each grant of land along with the other road-above named. The Fort Scott & Emporia R.R., the Pleasant Hill & Lawrence R.R. and also the St. Louis & Santa Fe. R.R., from Holden, Mo., through the counties of Miami, Franklin, Osage, and Lyon, to Emporia, thence to Santa Fe had all been much discussed.

Education. Every 16th and 36th section of land being set apart by Government for a school fund for the State, we have about 3,000,000 acres of school lands, now being sold from $3 to $20 per acre. In 1866 there had been $318,897 invested in school houses. The district school taxes, in addition to the State fund amounted to $192,620. The State University, at Lawrence, with 5 professors and 60 students, has an endowment of 40,080 acres of land. The State Agricultural College at Manhattan, with 5 professors and 150 students, has 90,000 acres. The State Normal School at Emporia, with 3 teachers and 50 students, 37,760 acres of land. There have been endowed, with more or less liberality, the following Institutions: by the Methodists, Baker University, a Baldwin City, and Hartford Institute at Hartford; by the United Brethren, Lane University, at Lecompton; by the Christian Church, the Western Christian University, at Quindaro; by the Baptists, Ottawa University, at Ottawa; by the Congregationalists, Lincoln College at Topeka; by the Episopalians, the Topeka Female Seminary, at Topeka; the Catholics have the Academy for Young Ladies, Leavenworth, the Academy for Young Ladies Lawrence, St. Scholastieus Convent, Atchison, and Manual Labor School, Catholic Mission, Neosho Co., besides several others.

Newspaper. Twelve dailies and 43 weeklies in the State. Three monthlies. Two of the dailies and three of the weeklies are in German. The monthlies are the Kanasan Farmer, Lawrence, the Educational Journal, and the Congregational Journal, both at Topeka,

Stock Raising is and will be, a leading business of the State The wide range of prairie--late home of the buffalo--the richness of native grasses and the adaptability of the soil to the tame grasses, the mildness and brevity of the winters--all combine to make Kansas the most promising stock growing State in the Union. Prairie hay to be had for the cutting and caring.

Taxes. The levy of the State tax for 1866-7 is 4 mills on the dollar. The constitution prohibits the State from contracting a debt of over one million dollars without the consent of the people at a general election.

Wages. Ordinary labor averages 1,75 per day. Mechanical $2,50 to $5,00. Girls', $3,00 to $5,00 per week.

Price of Lands. Lands in second hands among settlements rate at $1,25 to $3,00 per acre--unimproved prarie. Improved $5 to $15. Good timber land, $5 to $25.

Free farms. Under the Homestead Act any citizen can get 160 acres of government land by living on it five years, and paying in all eighteen dollars [?] fees. U.S. Land Offices at Topeka, Junction City and Humboldt.

Persons desiring further information will please address "The State Bureau of Immigration," Topeka Kansas, and it will be furnished free of charge Rooms always open at the office of the Bureau, Executive Chambers, for the reception of immigrants and other seeking information.

S. J. Crawford, (Governor) Ex-officio President of the Board.
L. D. Baily (Judge of Supreme Court) Treasurer of the Board,
George A. Crawford, Secretary of the Board.

} Commissioners of Immigration of the State of Kansas,
Sold by Drake Brothers, 67 Delaware st., Leavenworth, --Tiernan pr

Title: General Circular, Bureau of Immigration, Topeka, Kansas, March 11, 1867

Source: Kansas University Library, RH MS P783.2

Date: March 11, 1867

Sponsor: This project is supported in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Geraldine W. & Robert J. Dellenback Foundation.

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